Language Analysis of Film: Directive Illocutionary Acts

Language Analysis of Film: Directive Illocutionary Acts

BY MORTEN TYLDUM

ABSTRACT

This assignment is entitled “A study of Directive Illocutionary Acts in Passengers Movie Script by Morten Tyldum”. It is aimed at describing forms and meanings of Jim’s utterances based on Vanderveken’s theory by using descriptive method.

In the collecting data, I follows three stages. Those are data selection, data collection, and data classification. The selection stage was done by searching the movie script as the data source, the data collection covers collecting the data from Jim’s utterances in the movie script, and the data classification includes gathering Jim’s utterances which contain Directive Illocutionary Act. In analyzing the data, I follows several stages. They are: founding categorizing, describing, and qualifying the utterances found in the data.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study

Language is used as a means of communication where people use it as a tool to express their ideas and wishes. According to Ramelan (1991: 8), “Language can help man to express his ideas and wishes to another such as when he needs some helps, so that close relationship among members of the group can be carried out.” All human beings use language to interact with other members of the same speech community. It can be said that language plays an important role as a means of communication.

According to Chaer & Augustin (2004: 17), “Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbol, sign or behavior”. Therefore, language is an important tool in communication process: participant (at least two people or a group), topic (what is talking about), and means of communication (symbol, sign, etc.).

Speech acts is the study of the meaning and the function of an utterance. The speech is used to clarify what the speaker does. Austin (1965: 108) in his book “How to Do Things with Words”, mention three types of speech acts; they are Locutionary Act, Illocutionary Act, and Perlocutionary Act.

The Locutionary Act refers to the referential or factual meaning of the sentence: that is the literal meaning of the actual words. When we say,”I’m hungry”, this utterance refers to the condition of the speaker which is hungry with no intention of ordering the hearer to give the speaker some food.

The Illocutionary Act refers to the speaker’s intention in uttering the words (such as a request to close the door, or an offer of something). When we say, “it’s very hot here”, the speaker has some intention to order the hearer to open the window or to turn on the air conditioner.

The Perlocutionary Act refers to the effect this utterance has on the thoughts or actions of the other person such as someone actually closing the door or helping them to the food. When we say, “there is snake next to you!” this sentence brings an effect to the hearer like screaming or running. This sentence has perlocutionary effect to the hearer.

Movie script is a means of communication for an artist or a script writer to express their ideas. It can be in the form of written language. In spoken language, utterance makes the movie very clear. In addition, the utterance of speech act also describes or tells the viewers what the actors do in the movie.

The object of this research is a movie entitled Passengers. I analyze this movie because in a movie I find out many Directive Illocutionary Acts in its script as well as to know the meaning of the utterance used in Illocutionary Act, because movie closer in daily conversation appeals of interview and talk show.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The problem of this study can be stated as follows:

  1. What the Directive Illocutionary Acts are found in the Passengers movie script?
  2. What are the meanings of the Illocutionary Acts the Passengers movie script?

1.3 Scope of the Study

This study is focuses on the Illocutionary Act especially Directive Illocutionary Act in Jim’s utterances as the first character in the movie Passengers. In analyzing the Directive Illocutionary Act I use theory of Illocutionary Forces by Vanderveken.

  1. Objective of the Study

The objectives of the study are:

  1. To identify Directive Illocutionary Acts in the Passengers movie script.
  2. To describe the meanings of utterance in Illocutionary Force found in the Passengers movie script.